Writing a Research Paper – Part 2 – The Library

You’re getting ready to write a research paper. You’ve taken my advice and gone to the library. Now you are going find out how to use the library.
What type of library do you need? If you are a high school student you will probably use your school library, the public library, or maybe an academic library. A college student will go to the academic library at her college or university. But there are other kinds of libraries: private, research, specialized. You probably won’t need them at this point in your research.
The library has many resources for research. Books and other media are classified and shelved by different systems in various libraries. The Dewey Decimal system is used in school, public and small college libraries. The Library of Congress system is used in colleges and university libraries. The Superintendent of Documents system is generally used for a government documents collection at a library that participates in the Depository Library Program (FDLP). If you don’t know what system your library uses, ask a library assistant to help you.
Each item in the library will have a call number in one of the classification systems previously mentioned. Each item will have a unique identification number that is essentially an item’s address. If you have a few moments, take a walk around the library and look at the different call numbers.
Libraries have catalogues that will enable you to find what you are looking for. Most are now online and not in the drawers we used in the old days. You will enjoy searching the catalogue by keyword, subject, title, or author.
What will you find in the library? Books, journals, electronic media, documents, pamphlet, special collections. Let’s start with reference books.
Reference materials can not generally be checked out. These materials provide an overview of a topic including facts and statistics. Almanacsare annual publications with calendars, statistics, and useful facts. The World Almanac and Book of Facts is an example. Atlases have maps and charts. Dictionaries come in general and special versions. Encyclopedias provide the same type of overview and also will be all-purpose or specific subjects. The Encyclopedia Judaica is an example of a specialized encyclopedia.
Bibliographies are systematic lists of books and other works that cover a specific subject. Directories have lists of books, websites, and articles also on a specific subject. The 2009 Internet Directory lists websites, wikis, podcasts, forums, videos, blogs, virtual worlds and social networking. There are glossaries that define technical terms. You will find biographical dictionaries that are books or online.Who’s Who in America has been in print since 1899. There many other reference books like poetry indexes.
We have looked at many different types of reference books in the library. And don’t forget the nonfiction books and materials that are not reference and can be checked out. These are written by experts, such as scientists, scholars, and academics in a particular field. These materials discuss a particular topic in depth and provide citations to other sources on that topic. In the next article we will look at periodicals and electronic search media.

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Research Paper – From Start to Finish

Writing is the key to your success in college and at a job. You should not just think of writing as a chore, but a process to convey your thoughts, ideas and visions. Before you even pick up a pen or sit at a keyboard you should try and develop a voice for your paper.
The First Steps For Your Research Paper
When developing your topic for your essay or research paper you should start with the end in mind. I am not saying that you should have preconceived conclusions of what the research will show, but how your conclusions will effect the rest of the paper.
Remember the most important aspect of a quality research paper is the research. If you quote unreliable resources or “quacks” no one will take your paper seriously. The next thing is to make sure your paper is organized and grammatically correct. To be properly organized it is best to start off with an outline. The outline should include your introduction, your subtopics and your conclusion. The introduction will include your thesis statement and lay out what the rest of the paper is about. Your subtopics will include your research that leads to your conclusion. Finally, the conclusion is a summary of your findings and an interpretation of the material in the body of the paper.
The Rough Draft
The next step is putting together a rough draft. Do not worry about style or grammar at this point but it is time to consider your audience. Your goal at this point is to get your information on paper. The rough draft will show if your thoughts and ideas are complete. It may be necessary to do some additional research for your paper at this time. As well as consider the terminology you are using and the appropriateness for your reader. Any ideas that seem incomplete need to be expanded upon.
The Working Copy
Now it is time is to create a working copy. All your ideas, thoughts and research should be complete at this time. You write the working copy as if you are going to present it or turn it in. It needs to be in the correct style, APA, MLA, Chicago, etc. The grammar and spelling should be readable. You will rewrite sentences for clarity at this point and make sure none of your ideas can be misinterpreted.
Your Research Paper Final Draft
To go from a working copy to a final draft requires outside help. You need an expert in the field, or at least someone in your intended audience to read for content. This person should challenge your ideas and conclusions. They must also understand what you meant to say. This will lead to a more cohesive research paper. The second person is a proofreader and an English Major can be of assistance here. They need to proof the paper for grammar, spelling and style.
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Flipping Real Estate or Flipping Paper?

Flipping real estate properties is not for everybody but it is the fastest way to make a buck in the real estate business. Most everybody has heard of someone buying a “run down” house for a good price well below market value, fixing it up and selling it at a fair market price. Flipping a “fixer-upper” is definitely one way to turn a reasonably quick profit. I know some people who do it this way but they are more into the contractor and renovation business than they are of the investor mindset.
Some of these “fixer-upper” properties are in need of extensive repair and will involve electrical work, carpentry work, etc. If the investor gets involved and does some or all of this work then there could be enough profit there but if the investor farms out the required labour, profits could get eaten up quickly. For these types of flipping real estate investments, the purchase price needs to be at a huge discount and normally would be found somewhere in the foreclosure stage.
For the person that is in the mindset of investing rather than being in the renovation business then flipping real estate will only involve flipping the paper contract of the property without even taking possession of it. You can flip by entering an agreement to buy a property then sell the contract to another investor before close of escrow.
Using this technique won’t even require you to put your name on the title. Profits will generally be less than the fixer-upper investor but involves much less work and the whole process is much quicker. A fixer-upper investor would not be happy in making a profit of a few thousand dollars for a few months work on renovations but an investor that can just flip a contract for a few hours or days work would be.
Avoid disclosure of your profits to the new buyer by using a double closing.
After making a sweet deal and flipping a contract involving a juicy profit you may not want all these details to be revealed to your buyer. The solution is a double closing, transferring the property to you initially and then reselling immediately at the same lawyer’s office just an hour later to your buyer.
There is a drawback here and that is a double set of closing costs so you would have to weigh it out to see if it’s worth it to your particular situation or not. Further, you can use a title insurance company for the actual closings. For the issuance of the title insurance policy, the title insurance company will prepare the closing documents and close the transaction usually without an addition charge.

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Research the Old-Fashioned Way: Why the Library is Not Obsolete

Although researching and writing a college paper has never been child’s play, it was a bit more straightforward and less complicated before the advent of the Internet. Aspiring student researchers simply visited their university’s library, where they could easily check out a few relevant books after consulting the card catalog and use a periodical index to find a journal article or two. Nowadays, there are many more choices in addition to those regular, “old-fashioned” standbys. Still, the Internet has yet to render the library obsolete!
The World Wide Web has become a boundless source of information, bringing knowledge to the homes of millions. Yet, despite the tens of billions of pages available online, it’s a mistake to conclude that everything is available (somewhere!) on the Web. Contrary to popular belief, the entire world’s wisdom is not online and free for the taking. Some information will cost you, while other resources are nowhere to be found.
Additionally, the Web is rife with misinformation. Unfortunately, many students not only turn first to the Internet for their research needs, but they are also handicapped by their inability to distinguish reputable resources from unreliable ones. While use of the Internet can make research more convenient, it may also result in carelessness. Students are better served by beginning their research at the library and using the Web as a secondary resource.
Fortunately, the Internet has also changed the way in which the supposedly passé library functions. While you may still see drawers upon drawers of card catalogs, most libraries have also made their catalogs available online. Computers have facilitated interlibrary loan (ILL) as well. Likewise, paper journals and microfiche persist, but these resources are supplemented with subscriptions to online academic databases. Ultimately, libraries have used the Internet to provide the best of both worlds – the reputable resources available at the library, digitalized for greater accessibility.
1. Online Catalogs
In all likelihood, you’ve probably already used a card catalog, even if it was way back in elementary school. While catalogs do still exist, the good news is that most of them have been digitalized. Now available online, they’re much easier to access and search. If you can connect to your library’s computer system remotely, you can even browse their holdings from your dorm room!
Online catalogs generally consist of records of the library’s holdings (books, journals, dissertations, manuscripts, etc.), as opposed to the holdings themselves. A record can include any of the following information: author, title, publisher, date and place of publication, journal title, subject, and keywords.
You might be tempted to dismiss catalogs since they don’t provide instant gratification – immediate, full-text access to all available resources. However, you can access many of the holdings either via online academic databases or in the library itself – all it takes is a little detective work!
Other libraries offer access to their catalogs as well. WebCATS (http://www.libdex.com/) is an index of over 18,000 libraries’ catalogs. You can browse them by geographical location or search the index by keyword. Each entry provides a direct link to the library’s online holdings.
2. Interlibrary Loan (ILL)
Some libraries partner up with others and form groups called consortia. These consortia provide access to one another’s holdings – this is where ILL comes in. When you search your library’s catalog, most likely you’re simultaneously searching the catalogs of your library’s consortia as well. These libraries include not only university libraries, but also public, school, government, corporate, and institutional libraries. If you find a resource that isn’t available at your “home” library, you can either borrow it or obtain a copy from the library that houses it.
Many libraries offer this service online, but if you have any questions or are unable to locate an online form, it can be done at your library’s reference desk as well. If you aren’t affiliated with a library (or if you need a resource that belongs to a library that your own library isn’t associated with), you might be able to borrow or order it for a fee.
3. Academic Databases
Academic databases are privately owned or proprietary databases that charge users a fee to search their holdings or retrieve full-text documents. While members of the public can pay to use these services online, students have ready access to dozens of proprietary databases that their libraries subscribe to. These academic databases can cover a wide range of subjects, from business to the humanities, and offer everything from citations and abstracts to full-text documents. A single company may produce several different databases, and different databases may include some of the same materials (including journals, articles, or even smaller or more specific databases).
Before you can choose the right database, you need to have a general idea of what subject you’ll be researching. Then, browse your library’s site for a database that covers your desired topic. Most likely, you’ll have several promising databases from which to select. Don’t be discouraged, and don’t rely on just one – try them all out! Although some of their coverage may overlap, you’ll probably be able to find unique resources in each of them.
While students veer towards databases, especially those that provide instant access to full-text articles, this is a grave mistake. As expansive as they may be, academic databases don’t usually include books, dissertations, or multimedia materials. Their coverage generally only dates back to the 1970s, and they don’t provide exhaustive coverage of most disciplines. Even worse, the full-text articles sometimes contain mistakes, including typographical errors and omissions of sections of the article – or even the entire article itself! Ideally, you should supplement your use of full-text databases with databases that only provide citations or abstracts. Then, you can use your library’s online catalog to locate hard copies of the materials. If the sources you’re interested in aren’t available at your library, it’s very possible that you’re librarian will be able to help you track them down.

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What Are the Common Types of Research Paper Proposals?

And different professors have different requirements about thesis applications! Very, very, confusing especially if you are doing this for the first time! Try these few tips on making your thesis application perfect for your professor first time around!
Writing the thesis application-
A research proposal is your way of presenting your ideas for your thesis to your professor. The main aim of our research application is that you want to show your professor
1. The amount of research you have done preparing for your thesis
2. The amount of time you have to gathering information, analysis, as well as organization of your thoughts.
3. To show that you are contributing some thing original to your field of research and your thesis application.
4. To show that your thesis topic matches your interests and capabilities
5. You can use this thesis application to present your research methods, forecast future problems which may occur with outcomes, and plan alternatives as well as interventions.
Parts of a thesis application-
The specific parts of the thesis application are as follows
1. The point of the research paper is to present your thesis application and explain how to solve it.
2. You should have a brief literature review ready in which you can present in which you review the major works on your topic and indicate what the arguments are. If you are applying a theory to an issue, you can review the theory used. The point is to show an awareness of what has been written on your issue, what evidence was used, what theories applied, and what arguments were made.
3. At the beginning put in a statement of what your thesis application is going to be.
4. Follow that up with what you are offering in your thesis application which will make it different from other arguments. If you are presenting a theory, you should give a brief idea of the theory and the proofs you are going to be using to back it up.
5. The next part should be a brief description of the different paragraphs you will have in your thesis.
6. A short list of your references, interviews, and the bibliography. You should also put in the site and books you took information from like databases, websites, critics, interviews, etc.
7. Don’t extend your thesis application more than 3-4 pages. It should act like the map to your research and your paper. The better you write your research paper proposal, the better your thesis will turn out to be.
Writing a research paper proposal will be very easy with these step by step points. Don’t take the easy way out, prepare for the thesis presentation well and your paper will turn out well!

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Research Papers – The True Definition

“Research Paper”- the very name conjures up images of hoards of books and journals piled on top of each other as one undertakes the unenviable task of scanning ideas and arguments from numerous different sources.
Regardless of the picture that this term creates in one’s mind, it’s almost certain that one is on the look out for sources of information-books, articles, paintings, and criticisms while composing a research paper. However, what distinguishes a research paper from an ordinary review of a subject or a summation of the various ideas related to a topic is its analytical and argumentative approach.
No matter which field one’s paper focuses on, it ultimately highlights his or her own views on a particular subject that are supported by factual proofs derived from existing ideas and arguments.
Let us deal with a few specific examples; a lawyer writing a research paper on a specific case will read up case histories of similar nature to support his or her ideas; while a scientist may rummage through numerous case studies to establish his idea about a scientific principle. Thus, ideally we can define a research paper as an extended essay that represents or reflects the writers’ own evaluation or interpretation of a specific facet of a subject.
However, while writing an ordinary essay a person tries to bring forward his own ideas and opinions about the topic in question; whereas in a research paper one attempts to develop ones’ own knowledge about the topic in question and deliberately attempt to find out what other competent people know and feel about the subject.
Thus we can comment that a research paper involves the survey of a specific sphere of knowledge with an aim of producing the best possible and most competent argument regarding that topic. With the right approach, a research paper can be the most ordered and well-directed guide of the topic under consideration.

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Five Steps to Quality Essay Writing

No two writers think alike. Everyone is unique. For the same reason, everyone has his own manner of using language. But as far as the science of essay writing is concerned, there are some general parameters to be followed. While writing an essay, certain tips will help you to make it an excellent one.
1. A Well Balanced Essay
Ideas should not be written in a Chaotic or disorganized manner. There must be an easy and automatic flow. You are not supposed to stop an essay in the middle of a hot issue. Proceed in such a way that each and every sentence must guide you to the conclusion. The beginning, the middle and the end must be crystal clear to the readers. How you begin, how you proceed and how you end up; all have equal importance in the assessment of an essay.
A well begun stuff pushes the readers to keep on reading it. Though the middle portion of the essay bears the essence of your topic, the conclusion is not of less importance. In short, each and every part of an essay is next to nothing.
2. Too Much is Too Bad
Never go for marathon writing. Essays must not be too long. It kills the grandeur of your work. Write the relevant points using minimum number of words which are apt and attractive. Though there are no strict rules governing the length of the essays, it is always desirable to finish it with 350 words. However you are free to break this unwritten law to a certain extent, considering the seriousness of your subject matter. A topic which requires much statements and explanations can take a little more length. But keep in mind the above said words; Too much is too bad.
3. Be up-to-the-minute
No need to mention the importance of ‘knowledge chase’ in the process of every type of writings. All findings start when you start finding the apt source. But don’t be cheated by resources which are outdated. Be accurate in selecting the right assistance.
You can surpass your fellow students by attempting something new. Go for innovation in whatever field you indulge in. Any creative writing stuff can be made exceptional by clinging on to latest information on air. It shows that you are keeping the right pace with the world around.
4. Style par excellent
Don’t use unnatural and unfamiliar words. An inclination to use these types of words seems to be made-up. A highly intricate language with full of unnecessary ornamentation leads the reader to finish reading from the middle. Use natural expressions in a novel way. Don’t make sentences too complicated and too polished. Let them be interactive and conversing. Make it a thorough piece of objective one.
5. A flavor of personal touch
Study an issue from a number of possible angles. After finding creative assistance from experienced hands, add your own opinion. Give a personal touch to it. As far as your assignment is concerned, what others said is only secondary. An essay should not be a collection of the opinions of great writers and orators. There should be your stamp in it. Your own feelings and outlooks make the essay solely yours. Never be under the impression that you are second to somebody. Think that you are a person of importance. Crush the psychological barrier to include your individuality in your writings. Keep in mind; you are capable of doing anything great.

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How to Write a University Term Paper – Be the Top Student

The key to writing a successful term paper is in the organisation. Well written papers hide the effort that goes into the plans and research whilst also demonstrating a knowledgeable insight into a chosen subject.
The first step that you need to take is to select the subject you wish to write about. Some universities will give you guidelines on this, and some even will distribute a list of titles and topics to choose from. If this is not the case, think about what you know and what you would be happy to research. Finding a balance between what you know and have research before and ideas and topics which are completely new is ideal.
Once you have your subject and title, you need to start thinking about how you will approach your research process. It is best to use a combination of methods in your research. Online journals and eBooks should be combined with library visits. It is better to have too many resources to draw upon rather than too little. Making the most of your resources come from combining different reading methods. Detailed readings of particular sources with meticulous summaries and notes can be done alongside the skimming of articles to pick out the prominent materials and get a gist of what they are saying. Noting the source of your notes, as you go along, will save you time later in the panicky stage of writing your references.
When you have a comprehensive set of notes in place and you feel that you understand what argument and information you wish to convey in your term paper then you need to start thinking about your plan. A detailed and well thought out plan is essential to a successful term paper. The plan needs to set out how you are going to introduce your subject, what sources and quotations you are going to use to support your writing, and how it will be concluded. The plan should be about 10 percent of your actual term paper. You can look at the plan and play around with ideas and strands of arguments to manipulate it to your conclusion. It is worth investing time on this stage as it will pay off in the finished result.
Now you have to knuckle down and write your paper! This stage should have been made easier through thorough preparation. Keep to your plan and keep the flow of your writing consistent throughout. It is sometimes advisable to not write your introduction until you have finished the rest of your paper because, at that stage, you can truly introduce what the rest of your paper sets out to do.
Referencing can seem an annoying and tedious end to your paper writing but it is essential to get this write! Comprehensive reference about the providence of your sources in your notes should aid this process innumerably.
It may take a few drafts, proofreading and revisions to get the final version of your term paper but the time you invested in the preparation stage should pay off!

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